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Population: Middle school youth and their parents
Setting: Home, School, or Other Community Settings
Risk Factors Addressed: Family functioning, limited school attachment, attitudes favorable to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use
Description: Active Parenting of Teens: Families in Action uses a family systems approach in which families attend sessions and learn skills. Each of the sessions includes the time during which parents and youth meet in separate groups and time during which all family members meet together. Modules address parent-child communication, positive behavior management, interpersonal relationships for adolescents, ways for families to have fun together, enhancement of the adolescent's self-esteem, and factors that promote school success. Youth are taught about the negative social and physical effects of substance use, they learn general life skills and social resistance skills, and they are provided opportunities to practice these skills. Parents are taught skills to help reinforce their teen's skills training. During the portion of each session involving the youth and parents together, they participate in a family enrichment activity and receive a homework assignment to complete before the next session.
Population: Young adults ages 14-19
Risk Factors Addressed: Depression and anxiety
Description: CAST delivers life-skills training and social support in a small-group format (6-8 students per group). The program consists of 12 55-minute group sessions administered over 6 weeks by trained high school teachers, counselors, or nurses with considerable school-based experience. CAST serves as a follow-up program for youth who have been identified through screening as being at significant risk for suicide. CAST's skills training sessions target three overall goals: increased mood management (depression and anger), improved school performance, and decreased drug involvement. Group sessions incorporate key concepts, objectives, and skills that inform a group-generated implementation plan for the CAST leader. Sessions focus on group support, goal setting and monitoring, self-esteem, decision-making skills, better management of anger and depression, "school smarts," control of drug use with relapse prevention, and self-recognition of progress through the program.
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, low skill efficacy
Description: LifeSkills Training (LST) is a school-based program that aims to prevent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and violence by targeting the major social and psychological factors that promote the initiation of substance use and other risky behaviors. Consistent with this theoretical framework, LST addresses multiple risk and protective factors and teaches personal and social skills that build resilience and help youth navigate developmental tasks, including the skills necessary to understand and resist prodrug influences. LST is designed to provide information relevant to the important life transitions that adolescents and young teens face, using culturally sensitive and developmentally and age-appropriate language and content. Facilitated discussion, structured small group activities, and role-playing scenarios are used to stimulate participation and promote the acquisition of skills.
Population: All populations and socioeconomic levels and ages
Risk Factors Addressed: Problem behaviors, family conflict, academic problems
Description: Positive Action is an integrated and comprehensive curriculum-based program that is designed to improve academic achievement; school attendance; and problem behaviors such as substance use, violence, suspensions, disruptive behaviors, dropping out, and sexual behavior. It is also designed to improve parent–child bonding, family cohesion, and family conflict. Its concepts are universal and effective for all populations and socioeconomic levels and ages. All materials are based on the same unifying broad concept (one feels good about oneself when taking positive actions, and there is a positive way to do everything) with six explanatory subconcepts (positive actions for the physical, intellectual, social, and emotional areas) that elaborate on the overall theme. These positive actions are skills that one needs to achieve academically and in life. The skills, or positive actions, are taught within six units and are the basis of all materials, which provides coherence and consistency within the whole program.
**The SERC Library has purchased the kits for Grades 5 - 12**
Population: Students ages 14-19
Risk Factors Addressed: Poor academic achievement, school absenteeism, school dropout, lack of school bonding, emotional distress, depression, aggression
Description: Reconnecting Youth: A Peer Group Approach to Building Life Skills (RY) is a school-based prevention program for students ages 14-19 years that teaches skills to build resiliency against risk factors and control early signs of substance abuse and emotional distress. RY targets youth who demonstrate poor school achievement and high potential for school dropout. Eligible students must have either (1) fewer than the average number of credits earned for all students in their grade level at their school, high absenteeism, and a significant drop in grades during the prior semester or (2) a record of dropping out of school. Potential participants are identified using a school's computer records or are referred by school personnel if they show signs of any of the above risk factors. Eligible students may show signs of multiple problem behaviors, such as substance abuse, aggression, depression, or suicidal ideation. RY also incorporates several social support mechanisms for participating youth: social and school bonding activities to improve teens' relationships and increase their repertoire of safe, healthy activities; development of a crisis response plan detailing the school system's suicide prevention approaches; and parent involvement, including active parental consent for their teen's participation and ongoing support of their teen's RY goals.
Population: Middle school youth ages 11 to 14 years, and their families
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of parent-child communication about substance misuse, lack of knowledge about substance use
Description: Start Taking Alcohol Risks Seriously (STARS) for Families is a health promotion program that aims to prevent or reduce alcohol use among middle school youth ages 11 to 14 years. STARS for Families intervention materials are tailored to the individual's stage of alcohol use initiation. STARS for Families has three components. Youth who participate in the program receive brief individual consultations in school or in after-school programs about why and how to avoid alcohol use, and they may also receive a follow-up consultation. These standardized sessions are provided by trained adults guided by protocols. A series of eight postcards are mailed to parents/guardians providing key facts about how to talk to their children about avoiding alcohol. In addition, the family completes four take-home lessons designed to enhance parent-child communication regarding prevention skills and knowledge. These three components can be implemented separately or in various combinations. In addition to its implementation in school and after-school settings, the program also has been used in health clinics, youth organizations, and homes.
Population: Kindergarten through 12th-grade students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, low perception of harm regarding substance use, ineffective communication skills, violent/aggressive behavior
Description: Too Good for Drugs (TGFD) is a school-based prevention program for kindergarten through 12th grade that builds on students' resiliency by teaching them how to be socially competent and autonomous problem solvers. The program is designed to benefit everyone in the school by providing needed education in social and emotional competencies and by reducing risk factors and building protective factors that affect students in these age groups. TGFD focuses on developing personal and interpersonal skills to resist peer pressures, goal setting, decision-making, bonding with others, having respect for self and others, managing emotions, effective communication, and social interactions. The program also provides information about the negative consequences of drug use and the benefits of a nonviolent, drug-free lifestyle. TGFD has developmentally appropriate curricula for each grade level through 8th grade, with a separate high school curriculum for students in grades 9 through 12. The K-8 curricula each include 10 weekly, 30- to 60-minute lessons, and the high school curriculum includes 14 weekly, 1-hour lessons plus 12 optional, 1-hour "infusion" lessons designed to incorporate and reinforce skills taught in the core curriculum through academic infusion in subject areas such as English, social studies, and science/health.
*The SERC Library offers access to the Grade 3 - High School kits.**
Population: Middle school students
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Social norms favorable to substance use, peer pressure, low parental monitoring
Description: All Stars is a school- and community-based intervention that is designed to help middle-school students deter and delay the onset of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalant, and other substance use behaviors. The program also addresses prosocial behaviors that help students get along with each other and, at the discretion of the teacher, addresses postponing premature sexual activity. All Stars is designed to be interactive and engaging, using structured discussions, small-group activities, art projects, and games to encourage participation. All Stars Core includes 13, 45-minute sessions delivered on a weekly basis by teachers, prevention specialists, or community-based staff. All Stars Booster consists of nine, 45-minute sessions that reinforce lessons learned in the previous year and is designed to be implemented a year after the All Stars Core program.
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School Students
Setting: Not Specified
Risk Factors Addressed: Problem behavior, school engagement, social-emotional development
Description: Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an individualized problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. An assessment is conducted to identify the purpose or function of a student’s problem behavior. This assessment process involves collecting information about the environmental conditions that precede the problem behavior and the subsequent rewards that reinforce the behavior. The information that is gathered is then used to identify and implement individualized interventions aimed at reducing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors. Accordingly, the studies evaluating FBA examine different FBA-based interventions identified for each student. FBA-based interventions can be used to address diverse problem behaviors, such as disruptive and off-task behaviors, noncompliance, and inappropriate social interactions.
Population: Students aged 5 - 19
Setting: Home or School
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of knowledge and skills associated with practicing and maintaining healthy behaviors
Description: The Michigan Model for Health is a comprehensive and sequential health education curriculum that aims to give students aged 5-19 years (grades K-12) the knowledge and skills needed to practice and maintain healthy behaviors and lifestyles. The intervention provides age-appropriate lessons that address issues commonly faced by students, including use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; prevention of HIV/AIDS; proper nutrition; physical activity; and other wellness and safety concerns. These 20- to 45-minute lessons are designed to be implemented by the classroom teacher, and they include extension ideas for core subjects such as language arts and social studies, as well as ways to use the intervention outside of the classroom. The intervention also provides information for parents regarding the content that students are learning in the classroom and suggestions for related activities that can be done at home. The Michigan Model for Health, which can be implemented in public, private, or alternative schools, facilitates learning and skill development through a variety of interactive teaching and learning techniques, including demonstration and guided practice.
Population: First-time offenders between the ages of 12 and 18, and their parents
Setting: School and other Community settings
Risk Factors Addressed: Anger, stress, inadequate parental monitoring, ineffective communication skills, positive attitudes about ATOD
Description: Project MAGIC (Making A Group and Individual Commitment) is an alternative to juvenile detention for first-time offenders between the ages of 12 and 18. The program's goals include helping youths achieve academic success; modifying attitudes about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; and enhancing life skills development and internal locus of control. Project MAGIC is based on the ecological model, involving individual, family, school, and community domains. Over the 2-month course of the program, separate interventions are provided to the youths and their parents, who are trained to better monitor their children's behavior.
Population: Children ages 4 - 14
Risk Factors Addressed: Impulsivity, aggressive behavior, bullying
Description: Second Step is a classroom-based social-skills program for children 4 to 14 years of age that teaches socioemotional skills aimed at reducing impulsive and aggressive behavior while increasing social competence. The program consists of in-school curricula, parent training, and skill development. Second Step teaches children to identify and understand their own and others' emotions, reduce impulsiveness and choose positive goals, and manage their emotional reactions and decision-making process when emotionally aroused. The curriculum is divided into two age groups: preschool through 5th grade (with 20 to 25 lessons per year) and 6th through 9th grade (with 15 lessons in year 1 and 8 lessons in the following 2 years). Each curriculum contains five teaching kits that build sequentially and cover empathy, impulse control, and anger management in developmentally and age-appropriate ways. Group decision-making, modeling, coaching, and practice are demonstrated in the Second Step lessons using interpersonal situations presented in photos or video format.
** The SERC Library offers access to the Grade 1-5 bundle as well as the Grade 7 and Grade 8 kits.**
Population: 12- to 19-year-olds who display the early stages of alcohol or drug involvement
Setting: Outpatient or School
Risk Factors Addressed: Substance use, barriers to behavioral change
Description: Teen Intervene is a brief, early intervention program for 12- to 19-year-olds who display the early stages of alcohol or drug involvement. The intervention aims to help teens reduce and ultimately eliminate their substance use. The program is typically administered in an outpatient, school, or juvenile detention setting by a trained professional in three 1-hour sessions conducted 10 days apart. During session 1, an individual session with the adolescent, the therapist elicits information about the adolescent's substance use and related consequences, examines the costs and benefits of the substance use, and helps the adolescent set goals of behavior change, including goals to reduce or eliminate substance use. In session 2, the therapist assesses the adolescent's progress, discusses strategies for overcoming barriers, and negotiates the adolescent's continued work toward meeting goals. Session 3 is an individual counseling session with the teenager's parent (or guardian); this session addresses parent-child communication and discipline practices, and specific ways for the parent to support the child's goals. The third session also includes a brief wrap-up conversation with the parent and adolescent.
Population: Kindergarten through 12th-grade students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, ineffective communication skills, violent/aggressive behavior
Description: Too Good for Violence (TGFV) is a school-based violence prevention and character education program designed to improve student behavior and minimize aggression. TGFV is designed to help students in kindergarten through 8th grade learn the skills they need to get along peacefully with others. The high school version, called Too Good for Drugs and Violence-High School, is available and contains substance-abuse prevention components. In both content and teaching methods, the program addresses students' positive attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. It teaches skills sequentially and at each grade level provides developmentally appropriate curricula designed to address risk and protective factors.
The program consists of seven 30- to 60-minute age-appropriate lessons, for kindergarten through fifth grade, and nine 30- to 45-minute lessons, for sixth through eighth grade. The program’s interactive teaching methods encourage students to bond with prosocial peers and engage students by using games, role-playing, small-group activities, cooperative learning, and class discussions. The curriculum emphasizes developing interpersonal skills for conflict resolution and resistance skills to avoid substance use. TGFV teaches that each student has what it takes to solve conflicts peaceably and provides opportunities to practice peacemaking and antibullying skills. The program includes components to involve families and the entire school. The family component includes newsletters and an interactive homework assignment.
Population: Male athletes ages 15-18
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Body image and substance use norms for male athletes
Description: The ATLAS program is designed to reduce or stop adolescent male athletes’ use of anabolic steroids, sport supplements, alcohol, and illegal drugs, while improving nutrition and exercise practices. Participants learn how to achieve their athletic goals by using state-of-the-art sports nutrition and strength training and how to avoid using harmful substances that will impair their physical and athletic abilities. ATLAS is delivered in a classroom to an entire school sports team at once. The curriculum consists of 10, 45-minute interactive classroom sessions and 3 exercise-training sessions facilitated by peer educators, coaches, and strength trainers.
Population: 12 - 14-year-old students
Risk Factors Addressed: Social norms favorable to substance use, peer pressure
Description: Keepin' it REAL is a multicultural, school-based substance use prevention program for students 12-14 years old. Keepin' it REAL uses a 10-lesson curriculum taught by trained classroom teachers in 45-minute sessions over 10 weeks, with booster sessions delivered in the following school year. The curriculum is designed to help students assess the risks associated with substance abuse, enhance decision-making and resistance strategies, improve antidrug normative beliefs and attitudes, and reduce substance use. The curriculum places special emphasis on resistance strategies represented in the acronym REAL: Refuse offers to use substances, Explain why you do not want to use substances, Avoid situations in which substances are used, and Leave situations in which substances are used.
Population: Students grades K - 5 (with a separate program for teens)
Risk Factors Addressed: Aggression, violence
Description: PeaceBuilders is a schoolwide violence prevention program for elementary schools (grades K-5) with a corresponding teen-centered PeacePack program. PeaceBuilders attempts to create a positive school climate by developing positive relationships between students and school staff; directly teaching nonviolent attitudes, values, and beliefs; and providing incentives for young people to display these behaviors at school, in the community, and at home. PeaceBuilders introduces a common language to a school centered on six principles: praise people; avoid put-downs; seek wise people as advisers and friends; notice and correct hurts we cause; right wrongs; and help others. Activities and rewards designed to teach and encourage these "peace-building" behaviors are woven into the school's everyday routine with the participation of all staff in the school, including teachers, classroom aides, administrators, librarians, nurses, playground monitors, and any others who regularly interact with students. Targeted outcomes include improved social competence, more frequent positive and prosocial behavior, and reduced aggression.
Population: Students in grades 6-8
Risk Factors Addressed: Social norms favorable to substance misuse, lack of knowledge of the problem of underage substance use
Description: Project Northland is an alcohol-use prevention program aimed at students in grades six through eight. The program’s goals are to 1) delay the age when young people begin drinking, 2) reduce alcohol use among young people who have already tried drinking, and 3) limit the number of alcohol-related problems experienced by young people. The program is multilevel and incorporates elements targeted at all students in grades six to eight as well as parents, the school, and the community. The program uses peer-led, experiential activity-driven learning strategies to involve students. Parents and guardians are enlisted to support a “no use” message. Communities are organized to reduce youth access to alcohol and promote alcohol/drug-free norms for youths. Project Northland comprises three components that correspond to each of the three grade levels targeted.
Setting: Home, School, or other Community settings
Risk Factors Addressed: Negative self-image, negative health habits
Description: SPORT Prevention Plus Wellness, a motivational intervention designed for use by all adolescents, integrates substance abuse prevention with health promotion to help adolescents minimize and avoid substance use while increasing physical activity and other health-enhancing habits, including eating well and getting adequate sleep. The intervention promotes the benefits of an active lifestyle with positive images of youth as active and fit, and emphasizes that substance use is counterproductive in achieving positive image and behavior goals. Adolescents participating in SPORT complete a short, self-administered health behavior screen measuring physical activity and sport behaviors and norms, healthy nutrition, sleep, and alcohol use. During a one-on-one session with a fitness specialist--a teacher, coach, or other professional (e.g., fitness trainer, nurse)--participants receive a booklet and a personally tailored consultation that follows a written script. Participants complete a simple fitness prescription goal plan intended to encourage positive behavior and image change. In addition, flyers addressing key content of the intervention are provided to parents/caregivers for 4 consecutive weeks after the intervention.
**The SERC Library offers the elementary, middle, and high school versions of this material.**
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School students
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Perception of risk, exposure to positive substance use messages via media, positive attitudes toward substance use, misinformation regarding the effects and/or consequences of substance use
Description: First developed by Friends of Narconon Intl. and Narconon International in 1996, the Narconon Truth About Drugs Video Program started as a stand-alone prevention DVD (or VHS) for schools to use to supplement their ongoing prevention efforts. In 2002, the first edition of the kit was developed. Currently, the program is a multimedia, 8-session curriculum for middle school and high school students. The program aims to positively change youths’ attitudes and perceptions of risk in regard to drug use; in part, by correcting false data as well as incorrect impressions presented by the media and other sources. The curriculum incorporates a unique combination of prevention strategies for addressing the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and common "hard drugs." The Narconon Truth About Drugs Video Program conveys science-based information from diverse fields such as toxicology, forensic science, nutrition, marketing, and pharmacology, in simple terms, through illustrative examples and stories. The DVDs also feature vignettes of young adults sharing their personal stories of addiction and recovery to illustrate the harms associated with drug use, including the lies they told themselves and others when using and even dealing drugs. According to the program developer, the Truth About Drugs Video Program has been implemented in 1,000 U.S. high schools, 23 middle schools, 8 elementary schools, and one Girls and Boys Club.
Population: 13- to 15-year-olds
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Exposure to positive substance use messages via media, social norms favoring substance use
Description: The Youth Message Development (YMD) media-literacy curriculum aims to prevent adolescent substance use among 13- to 15-year-olds by increasing their knowledge of advertising techniques used to sell alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) products; developing their counter-arguing and critical-thinking skills in response to ATOD messages; and helping them actively apply these skills and techniques to create youth-driven, anti-ATOD messages. Youths learn about advertising and how it is designed to influence behavior, then critically analyze existing ads and produce their own counter-advertising ads. The activities are designed to be engaging and encourage collaborations and discussions among participants. The curriculum incorporates ads for generating discussion and analysis, activities to increase involvement, and small-group structure to facilitate learning from peers. The curriculum comprises four lessons with corresponding activities that focus on 1) media reach and persuasion strategies used by advertisers to sell ATOD products; 2) claims used in ATOD messages, and counterarguments used in anti-ATOD messages; 3) production techniques used by advertisers including setting, colors, font size, and object placement; and 4) the active application of content learned in lessons 1–3 to the development of a poster that includes an anti-substance use message.