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Population: Children in grades K-6
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Academic failure, delinquency, and school climate
Description: The Caring School Community (CSC) program is a school-reform program for grades K–6 that seeks to build classroom and schoolwide community and promote students’ social-emotional learning (SEL) skills and competencies. This is done through the four components of the CSC program which include class meetings, cross-age buddies, homeside activities, and schoolwide community-building activities. Classroom teachers learn strategies for strengthening students’ school connectedness, academic motivation, and academic achievement; and for lowering students’ risk for violence and delinquency. The CSC approach emphasizes the integration of individual, communal, cognitive, and social-emotional elements within the academic setting.
Population: Grade 4 - 6 students and their parents
Setting: Home, School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure
Description: Keep a Clear Mind (KACM) is a take-home, alcohol and drug education and prevention program for fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents. KACM was developed in 1988 and is designed to help children develop specific skills to refuse and avoid the use of “gateway” drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. The take-home format is intended to extend these concepts to the home and incorporate parental involvement. The program includes four activity booklets and five parent newsletters, given out once a week over 9 weeks. Incentives such as KACM-branded pencils, bumper stickers, wristbands, and bookmarks are provided to children weekly to encourage them to complete the activity booklets with their parents.
Population: Students aged 5 - 19
Setting: Home or School
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of knowledge and skills associated with practicing and maintaining healthy behaviors
Description: The Michigan Model for Health is a comprehensive and sequential health education curriculum that aims to give students aged 5-19 years (grades K-12) the knowledge and skills needed to practice and maintain healthy behaviors and lifestyles. The intervention provides age-appropriate lessons that address issues commonly faced by students, including use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; prevention of HIV/AIDS; proper nutrition; physical activity; and other wellness and safety concerns. These 20- to 45-minute lessons are designed to be implemented by the classroom teacher, and they include extension ideas for core subjects such as language arts and social studies, as well as ways to use the intervention outside of the classroom. The intervention also provides information for parents regarding the content that students are learning in the classroom and suggestions for related activities that can be done at home. The Michigan Model for Health, which can be implemented in public, private, or alternative schools, facilitates learning and skill development through a variety of interactive teaching and learning techniques, including demonstration and guided practice.
Population: First-time offenders between the ages of 12 and 18, and their parents
Setting: School and other community settings
Risk Factors Addressed: Anger, stress, inadequate parental monitoring, ineffective communication skills, positive attitudes about ATOD
Description: Project MAGIC (Making A Group and Individual Commitment) is an alternative to juvenile detention for first-time offenders between the ages of 12 and 18. The program's goals include helping youths achieve academic success; modifying attitudes about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; and enhancing life skills development and internal locus of control. Project MAGIC is based on the ecological model, involving individual, family, school, and community domains. Over the 2-month course of the program, separate interventions are provided to the youths and their parents, who are trained to better monitor their children's behavior.
Population: Students grades 3 - 6
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of knowledge of the consequences of substance use, positive attitudes toward substance misuse, lack of parental engagement with child
Description: Rock In Prevention, Rock PLUS, is a 12-week classroom curriculum designed for grades 3-6 that uses music and the arts as interactive teaching tools to influence behaviors and attitudes related to the use of four targeted substances: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and inhalants. The intervention is also designed to increase awareness of the risks of substance use; develop personal and social skills; encourage parental involvement; and foster a number of positive traits, such as academic achievement, health and wellness, media literacy, anger management, problem-solving, and anti-bullying attitudes. The theoretical basis of the intervention is rooted in the positive behavior supports approach to reducing negative behaviors and enhancing positive outcomes. The intervention aims to create a safe and supportive learning environment in which the desired behaviors and attitudes can be achieved. The core components are in-class lesson plans, usually one class period in length, which include visual, auditory, and kinesthetic elements, and a "song of the week" used at home to engage parents and the child. Songs produced for the program deliver key learning objectives in a form that is engaging and memorable. Skits and other interactive activities incorporate the same messages.
Population: Middle school youth ages 11 to 14 years, and their families
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of parent-child communication about substance misuse, lack of knowledge about substance use
Description: Start Taking Alcohol Risks Seriously (STARS) for Families is a health promotion program that aims to prevent or reduce alcohol use among middle school youth ages 11 to 14 years. STARS for Families intervention materials are tailored to the individual's stage of alcohol use initiation. STARS for Families has three components. Youth who participate in the program receive brief individual consultations in school or in after-school programs about why and how to avoid alcohol use, and they may also receive a follow-up consultation. These standardized sessions are provided by trained adults guided by protocols. A series of eight postcards are mailed to parents/guardians providing key facts about how to talk to their children about avoiding alcohol. In addition, the family completes four take-home lessons designed to enhance parent-child communication regarding prevention skills and knowledge. These three components can be implemented separately or in various combinations. In addition to its implementation in school and after-school settings, the program also has been used in health clinics, youth organizations, and homes.
Population: Kindergarten through 12th-grade students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, low perception of harm regarding substance use, ineffective communication skills, violent/aggressive behavior
Description: Too Good for Drugs (TGFD) is a school-based prevention program for kindergarten through 12th grade that builds on students' resiliency by teaching them how to be socially competent and autonomous problem solvers. The program is designed to benefit everyone in the school by providing needed education in social and emotional competencies and by reducing risk factors and building protective factors that affect students in these age groups. TGFD focuses on developing personal and interpersonal skills to resist peer pressures, goal setting, decision-making, bonding with others, having respect for self and others, managing emotions, effective communication, and social interactions. The program also provides information about the negative consequences of drug use and the benefits of a nonviolent, drug-free lifestyle. TGFD has developmentally appropriate curricula for each grade level through 8th grade, with a separate high school curriculum for students in grades 9 through 12. The K-8 curricula each include 10 weekly, 30- to 60-minute lessons, and the high school curriculum includes 14 weekly, 1-hour lessons plus 12 optional, 1-hour "infusion" lessons designed to incorporate and reinforce skills taught in the core curriculum through academic infusion in subject areas such as English, social studies, and science/health.
*The SERC Library offers access to the Grade 3 - High School kits.**
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School Students
Setting: Not Specified
Risk Factors Addressed: Problem behavior, school engagement, social-emotional development
Description: Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an individualized problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. An assessment is conducted to identify the purpose or function of a student’s problem behavior. This assessment process involves collecting information about the environmental conditions that precede the problem behavior and the subsequent rewards that reinforce the behavior. The information that is gathered is then used to identify and implement individualized interventions aimed at reducing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors. Accordingly, the studies evaluating FBA examine different FBA-based interventions identified for each student. FBA-based interventions can be used to address diverse problem behaviors, such as disruptive and off-task behaviors,noncompliance, and inappropriate social interactions.
Population: 12 - 14-year-old students
Risk Factors Addressed: Social norms favorable to substance use, peer pressure
Description: Keepin' it REAL is a multicultural, school-based substance use prevention program for students 12-14 years old. Keepin' it REAL uses a 10-lesson curriculum taught by trained classroom teachers in 45-minute sessions over 10 weeks, with booster sessions delivered in the following school year. The curriculum is designed to help students assess the risks associated with substance abuse, enhance decision-making and resistance strategies, improve antidrug normative beliefs and attitudes, and reduce substance use. The curriculum places special emphasis on resistance strategies represented in the acronym REAL: Refuse offers to use substances, Explain why you do not want to use substances, Avoid situations in which substances are used, and Leave situations in which substances are used.
Population: Students grades K - 5 (with a separate program for teens)
Risk Factors Addressed: Aggression, violence
Description: PeaceBuilders is a schoolwide violence prevention program for elementary schools (grades K-5) with a corresponding teen-centered PeacePack program. PeaceBuilders attempts to create a positive school climate by developing positive relationships between students and school staff; directly teaching nonviolent attitudes, values, and beliefs; and providing incentives for young people to display these behaviors at school, in the community, and at home. PeaceBuilders introduces a common language to a school centered on six principles: praise people; avoid put-downs; seek wise people as advisers and friends; notice and correct hurts we cause; right wrongs; and help others. Activities and rewards designed to teach and encourage these "peace-building" behaviors are woven into the school's everyday routine with the participation of all staff in the school, including teachers, classroom aides, administrators, librarians, nurses, playground monitors, and any others who regularly interact with students. Targeted outcomes include improved social competence, more frequent positive and prosocial behavior, and reduced aggression.
Population: Students in grades 6-8
Risk Factors Addressed: Social norms favorable to substance misuse, lack of knowledge of the problem of underage substance use
Description: Project Northland is an alcohol-use prevention program aimed at students in grades six through eight. The program’s goals are to 1) delay the age when young people begin drinking, 2) reduce alcohol use among young people who have already tried drinking, and 3) limit the number of alcohol-related problems experienced by young people. The program is multilevel and incorporates elements targeted at all students in grades six to eight as well as parents, the school, and the community. The program uses peer-led, experiential activity-driven learning strategies to involve students. Parents and guardians are enlisted to support a “no use” message. Communities are organized to reduce youth access to alcohol and promote alcohol/drug-free norms for youths. Project Northland comprises three components that correspond to each of the three grade levels targeted.
Population: Children ages 4 - 14
Risk Factors Addressed: Impulsivity, aggressive behavior, bullying
Description: Second Step is a classroom-based social-skills program for children 4 to 14 years of age that teaches socioemotional skills aimed at reducing impulsive and aggressive behavior while increasing social competence. The program consists of in-school curricula, parent training, and skill development. Second Step teaches children to identify and understand their own and others' emotions, reduce impulsiveness and choose positive goals, and manage their emotional reactions and decision-making process when emotionally aroused. The curriculum is divided into two age groups: preschool through 5th grade (with 20 to 25 lessons per year) and 6th through 9th grade (with 15 lessons in year 1 and 8 lessons in the following 2 years). Each curriculum contains five teaching kits that build sequentially and cover empathy, impulse control, and anger management in developmentally and age-appropriate ways. Group decision-making, modeling, coaching, and practice are demonstrated in the Second Step lessons using interpersonal situations presented in photos or video format.
** The SERC Library offers access to the Grade 1-5 bundle as well as the Grade 7 and Grade 8 kits.**
Population: 12- to 19-year-olds who display the early stages of alcohol or drug involvement
Setting: Outpatient or School
Risk Factors Addressed: Substance use, barriers to behavioral change
Description: Teen Intervene is a brief, early intervention program for 12- to 19-year-olds who display the early stages of alcohol or drug involvement. The intervention aims to help teens reduce and ultimately eliminate their substance use. The program is typically administered in an outpatient, school, or juvenile detention setting by a trained professional in three 1-hour sessions conducted 10 days apart. During session 1, an individual session with the adolescent, the therapist elicits information about the adolescent's substance use and related consequences, examines the costs and benefits of the substance use, and helps the adolescent set goals of behavior change, including goals to reduce or eliminate substance use. In session 2, the therapist assesses the adolescent's progress, discusses strategies for overcoming barriers, and negotiates the adolescent's continued work toward meeting goals. Session 3 is an individual counseling session with the teenager's parent (or guardian); this session addresses parent-child communication and discipline practices, and specific ways for the parent to support the child's goals. The third session also includes a brief wrap-up conversation with the parent and adolescent.
Population: Kindergarten through 12th-grade students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, ineffective communication skills, violent/aggressive behavior
Description: Too Good for Violence (TGFV) is a school-based violence prevention and character education program designed to improve student behavior and minimize aggression. TGFV is designed to help students in kindergarten through 8th grade learn the skills they need to get along peacefully with others. The high school version, called Too Good for Drugs and Violence-High School, is available and contains substance-abuse prevention components. In both content and teaching methods, the program addresses students' positive attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. It teaches skills sequentially and at each grade level provides developmentally appropriate curricula designed to address risk and protective factors.
The program consists of seven 30- to 60-minute age-appropriate lessons, for kindergarten through fifth grade, and nine 30- to 45-minute lessons, for sixth through eighth grade. The program’s interactive teaching methods encourage students to bond with prosocial peers and engage students by using games, role-playing, small-group activities, cooperative learning, and class discussions. The curriculum emphasizes developing interpersonal skills for conflict resolution and resistance skills to avoid substance use. TGFV teaches that each student has what it takes to solve conflicts peaceably and provides opportunities to practice peacemaking and antibullying skills. The program includes components to involve families and the entire school. The family component includes newsletters and an interactive homework assignment.
Population: Children ages 4-12
Risk Factors Addressed: Impulsivity, social withdrawal, early aggression
Description: I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) is a school-based program that focuses on enhancing the interpersonal cognitive processes and problem-solving skills of children ages 4-12. Rather than addressing specific behaviors as right or wrong, ICPS uses games, stories, puppets, illustrations, and role-plays to help children acquire a problem-solving vocabulary, learn to understand their own as well as others' feelings, think of alternative solutions, and think of potential consequences to an act. In turn, ICPS aims to prevent and reduce early high-risk behaviors, such as impulsivity and social withdrawal, and promote prosocial behaviors, such as concern for others and positive peer relationships. A key principle of the program is that the child, not the teacher, must solve the problem at hand. Giving the child this responsibility allows the child to develop the habit of creating solutions to problems, considering the potential consequences of one's actions, and thinking for oneself.
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, low skill efficacy
Description: LifeSkills Training (LST) is a school-based program that aims to prevent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and violence by targeting the major social and psychological factors that promote the initiation of substance use and other risky behaviors. Consistent with this theoretical framework, LST addresses multiple risk and protective factors and teaches personal and social skills that build resilience and help youth navigate developmental tasks, including the skills necessary to understand and resist prodrug influences. LST is designed to provide information relevant to the important life transitions that adolescents and young teens face, using culturally sensitive and developmentally and age-appropriate language and content. Facilitated discussion, structured small group activities, and role-playing scenarios are used to stimulate participation and promote the acquisition of skills.
Population: All populations and socioeconomic levels and ages
Risk Factors Addressed: Problem behaviors, family conflict, academic problems
Description: Positive Action is an integrated and comprehensive curriculum-based program that is designed to improve academic achievement; school attendance; and problem behaviors such as substance use, violence, suspensions, disruptive behaviors, dropping out, and sexual behavior. It is also designed to improve parent–child bonding, family cohesion, and family conflict. Its concepts are universal and effective for all populations and socioeconomic levels and ages. All materials are based on the same unifying broad concept (one feels good about oneself when taking positive actions, and there is a positive way to do everything) with six explanatory subconcepts (positive actions for the physical, intellectual, social, and emotional areas) that elaborate on the overall theme. These positive actions are skills that one needs to achieve academically and in life. The skills, or positive actions, are taught within six units and are the basis of all materials, which provides coherence and consistency within the whole program.
**The SERC Library has purchased the kits for Grades 5 - 12**
Population: Children in elementary school or preschool
Risk Factors Addressed: Behavior problems, impulsivity
Description: Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) and PATHS Preschool are school-based preventive interventions for children in elementary school or preschool. The interventions are designed to enhance areas of social-emotional development such as self-control, self-esteem, emotional awareness, social skills, friendships, and interpersonal problem-solving skills while reducing aggression and other behavior problems. Skill concepts are presented through direct instruction, discussion, modeling, storytelling, role-playing activities, and video presentations. The elementary school PATHS Curriculum is available in two units: the PATHS Turtle Unit for kindergarten and the PATHS Basic Kit for grades 1-6. The curriculum includes 131 20- to 30-minute lessons designed to be taught by regular classroom teachers approximately 3 times per week over the course of a school year. PATHS Preschool, an adaptation of PATHS for children 3 to 5 years old, is designed to be implemented over a 2-year period. Its lessons and activities highlight writing, reading, storytelling, singing, drawing, science, and math concepts and help students build the critical cognitive skills necessary for school readiness and academic success. The PATHS Preschool program can be integrated into existing learning environments and adapted to suit individual classroom needs.
Setting: Home, School, or other Community settings
Risk Factors Addressed: Negative self-image, negative health habits
Description: SPORT Prevention Plus Wellness, a motivational intervention designed for use by all adolescents, integrates substance abuse prevention with health promotion to help adolescents minimize and avoid substance use while increasing physical activity and other health-enhancing habits, including eating well and getting adequate sleep. The intervention promotes the benefits of an active lifestyle with positive images of youth as active and fit, and emphasizes that substance use is counterproductive in achieving positive image and behavior goals. Adolescents participating in SPORT complete a short, self-administered health behavior screen measuring physical activity and sport behaviors and norms, healthy nutrition, sleep, and alcohol use. During a one-on-one session with a fitness specialist--a teacher, coach, or other professional (e.g., fitness trainer, nurse)--participants receive a booklet and a personally tailored consultation that follows a written script. Participants complete a simple fitness prescription goal plan intended to encourage positive behavior and image change. In addition, flyers addressing key content of the intervention are provided to parents/caregivers for 4 consecutive weeks after the intervention.
**The SERC Library offers the elementary, middle, and high school versions of this material.**
Population: Elementary, Middle and High School students
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Perception of risk, exposure to positive substance use messages via media, positive attitudes toward substance use, misinformation regarding the effects and/or consequences of substance use
Description: First developed by Friends of Narconon Intl. and Narconon International in 1996, the Narconon Truth About Drugs Video Program started as a stand-alone prevention DVD (or VHS) for schools to use to supplement their ongoing prevention efforts. In 2002, the first edition of the kit was developed. Currently, the program is a multimedia, 8-session curriculum for middle school and high school students. The program aims to positively change youths’ attitudes and perceptions of risk in regard to drug use; in part, by correcting false data as well as incorrect impressions presented by the media and other sources. The curriculum incorporates a unique combination of prevention strategies for addressing the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and common "hard drugs." The Narconon Truth About Drugs Video Program conveys science-based information from diverse fields such as toxicology, forensic science, nutrition, marketing, and pharmacology, in simple terms, through illustrative examples and stories. The DVDs also feature vignettes of young adults sharing their personal stories of addiction and recovery to illustrate the harms associated with drug use, including the lies they told themselves and others when using and even dealing drugs. According to the program developer, the Truth About Drugs Video Program has been implemented in 1,000 U.S. high schools, 23 middle schools, 8 elementary schools, and one Girls and Boys Club.
Population: Students ages 8 - 11 (Grades 3 and 4)
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, negative self-image
Description: The unique YOU program (formerly called I’m Special) is designed to build self-esteem in third- and fourth-grade students, ages 8 to 11. The program’s primary goal is to develop and nurture a child’s uniqueness and self-worth. The program teaches communication and decision-making skills, how to positively express feelings, and the value of healthy choices, including resisting substance use. Eight sessions are delivered weekly for 45 to 60 minutes. The session’s learning goals are introduced by the facilitator and are followed by grade-level appropriate, hands-on, interactive activities. Each session’s activities are linked to the Common Core state standards initiative. The session topics focus on concepts that include 1) classroom behaviors and friendships; 2) discovering strengths and special talents; 3) accepting and expressing feelings; 4) communicating positively; 5) decision making; 6) cooperation and teamwork; 7) healthy habits such as resisting alcohol, tobacco, and drugs through a clear “no use” message; and 8) applying these skills in other areas of life.