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Population: Children in grades K-6
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Academic failure, delinquency, and school climate
Description: The Caring School Community (CSC) program is a school-reform program for grades K–6 that seeks to build classroom and schoolwide community and promote students’ social-emotional learning (SEL) skills and competencies. This is done through the four components of the CSC program which include class meetings, cross-age buddies, homeside activities, and schoolwide community-building activities. Classroom teachers learn strategies for strengthening students’ school connectedness, academic motivation, and academic achievement; and for lowering students’ risk for violence and delinquency. The CSC approach emphasizes the integration of individual, communal, cognitive, and social-emotional elements within the academic setting.
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School Students
Setting: Not Specified
Risk Factors Addressed: Problem behavior, school engagement, social-emotional development
Description: Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an individualized problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. An assessment is conducted to identify the purpose or function of a student’s problem behavior. This assessment process involves collecting information about the environmental conditions that precede the problem behavior and the subsequent rewards that reinforce the behavior. The information that is gathered is then used to identify and implement individualized interventions aimed at reducing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors. Accordingly, the studies evaluating FBA examine different FBA-based interventions identified for each student. FBA-based interventions can be used to address diverse problem behaviors, such as disruptive and off-task behaviors, noncompliance, and inappropriate social interactions.
Population: Students aged 5 - 19
Setting: Home or School
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of knowledge and skills associated with practicing and maintaining healthy behaviors
Description: The Michigan Model for Health is a comprehensive and sequential health education curriculum that aims to give students aged 5-19 years (grades K-12) the knowledge and skills needed to practice and maintain healthy behaviors and lifestyles. The intervention provides age-appropriate lessons that address issues commonly faced by students, including use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; prevention of HIV/AIDS; proper nutrition; physical activity; and other wellness and safety concerns. These 20- to 45-minute lessons are designed to be implemented by the classroom teacher, and they include extension ideas for core subjects such as language arts and social studies, as well as ways to use the intervention outside of the classroom. The intervention also provides information for parents regarding the content that students are learning in the classroom and suggestions for related activities that can be done at home. The Michigan Model for Health, which can be implemented in public, private, or alternative schools, facilitates learning and skill development through a variety of interactive teaching and learning techniques, including demonstration and guided practice.
Population: Students grades 3 - 6
Risk Factors Addressed: Lack of knowledge of the consequences of substance use, positive attitudes toward substance misuse, lack of parental engagement with child
Description: Rock In Prevention, Rock PLUS, is a 12-week classroom curriculum designed for grades 3-6 that uses music and the arts as interactive teaching tools to influence behaviors and attitudes related to the use of four targeted substances: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and inhalants. The intervention is also designed to increase awareness of the risks of substance use; develop personal and social skills; encourage parental involvement; and foster a number of positive traits, such as academic achievement, health and wellness, media literacy, anger management, problem-solving, and anti-bullying attitudes. The theoretical basis of the intervention is rooted in the positive behavior supports approach to reducing negative behaviors and enhancing positive outcomes. The intervention aims to create a safe and supportive learning environment in which the desired behaviors and attitudes can be achieved. The core components are in-class lesson plans, usually one class period in length, which include visual, auditory, and kinesthetic elements, and a "song of the week" used at home to engage parents and the child. Songs produced for the program deliver key learning objectives in a form that is engaging and memorable. Skits and other interactive activities incorporate the same messages.
Population: Children ages 3 - 8
Risk Factors Addressed: social-emotional challenges, it is the long term goal of the series is to prevent delinquency, drug abuse, and violence.
Description: The Classroom Dinosaur Curriculum is used by teachers as a prevention program for an entire classroom of students. The curriculum is delivered 2-3 times a week by teachers in the classroom in 20-30 minute circle time lessons, followed by small group practice activities and promotion of skills throughout the school day. The program includes letters for teachers to send home with suggested activities parents can do with their children to reinforce the classroom learning and promote parent involvement in classroom learning. The program includes lesson plans for 3 “levels” so that teachers can choose lessons based on children’s developmental age (Level 1: ages 3-5, Level 2: ages 5-6, Level 3: ages 7-8). The program includes the following topics:
Population: Kindergarten through 12th-grade students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, ineffective communication skills, violent/aggressive behavior
Description: Too Good for Violence (TGFV) is a school-based violence prevention and character education program designed to improve student behavior and minimize aggression. TGFV is designed to help students in kindergarten through 8th grade learn the skills they need to get along peacefully with others. The high school version, called Too Good for Drugs and Violence-High School, is available and contains substance-abuse prevention components. In both content and teaching methods, the program addresses students' positive attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. It teaches skills sequentially and at each grade level provides developmentally appropriate curricula designed to address risk and protective factors.
The program consists of seven 30- to 60-minute age-appropriate lessons, for kindergarten through fifth grade, and nine 30- to 45-minute lessons, for sixth through eighth grade. The program’s interactive teaching methods encourage students to bond with prosocial peers and engage students by using games, role-playing, small-group activities, cooperative learning, and class discussions. The curriculum emphasizes developing interpersonal skills for conflict resolution and resistance skills to avoid substance use. TGFV teaches that each student has what it takes to solve conflicts peaceably and provides opportunities to practice peacemaking and antibullying skills. The program includes components to involve families and the entire school. The family component includes newsletters and an interactive homework assignment.
Population: Pre K through Grade 2 students
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: defiance, conflicts with peers, and disruptive behaviors
Description: FIRST STEP Next is a collaborative home and school intervention for preschool through second grade. The teacher, family member, and behavioral coach (for example, school counselor, early childhood educator, or behavioral specialist) teach the at-risk child skills that contribute to school success and the development of friendships. The coach works one-on-one with the focus student to teach the following school success skills: Follow Directions, Be Safe, Ask for Attention the Right Way, Be a Team Player, Do Your Best, Be Cool, and Mistakes Are Okay.
Population: Children ages 4-12
Risk Factors Addressed: Impulsivity, social withdrawal, early aggression
Description: I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) is a school-based program that focuses on enhancing the interpersonal cognitive processes and problem-solving skills of children ages 4-12. Rather than addressing specific behaviors as right or wrong, ICPS uses games, stories, puppets, illustrations, and role-plays to help children acquire a problem-solving vocabulary, learn to understand their own as well as others' feelings, think of alternative solutions, and think of potential consequences to an act. In turn, ICPS aims to prevent and reduce early high-risk behaviors, such as impulsivity and social withdrawal, and promote prosocial behaviors, such as concern for others and positive peer relationships. A key principle of the program is that the child, not the teacher, must solve the problem at hand. Giving the child this responsibility allows the child to develop the habit of creating solutions to problems, considering the potential consequences of one's actions, and thinking for oneself.
Population: Children in elementary school or preschool
Risk Factors Addressed: Behavior problems, impulsivity
Description: Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) and PATHS Preschool are school-based preventive interventions for children in elementary school or preschool. The interventions are designed to enhance areas of social-emotional development such as self-control, self-esteem, emotional awareness, social skills, friendships, and interpersonal problem-solving skills while reducing aggression and other behavior problems. Skill concepts are presented through direct instruction, discussion, modeling, storytelling, role-playing activities, and video presentations. The elementary school PATHS Curriculum is available in two units: the PATHS Turtle Unit for kindergarten and the PATHS Basic Kit for grades 1-6. The curriculum includes 131 20- to 30-minute lessons designed to be taught by regular classroom teachers approximately 3 times per week over the course of a school year. PATHS Preschool, an adaptation of PATHS for children 3 to 5 years old, is designed to be implemented over a 2-year period. Its lessons and activities highlight writing, reading, storytelling, singing, drawing, science, and math concepts and help students build the critical cognitive skills necessary for school readiness and academic success. The PATHS Preschool program can be integrated into existing learning environments and adapted to suit individual classroom needs.
Population: Children ages 4 - 14
Risk Factors Addressed: Impulsivity, aggressive behavior, bullying
Description: Second Step is a classroom-based social-skills program for children 4 to 14 years of age that teaches socioemotional skills aimed at reducing impulsive and aggressive behavior while increasing social competence. The program consists of in-school curricula, parent training, and skill development. Second Step teaches children to identify and understand their own and others' emotions, reduce impulsiveness and choose positive goals, and manage their emotional reactions and decision-making process when emotionally aroused. The curriculum is divided into two age groups: preschool through 5th grade (with 20 to 25 lessons per year) and 6th through 9th grade (with 15 lessons in year 1 and 8 lessons in the following 2 years). Each curriculum contains five teaching kits that build sequentially and cover empathy, impulse control, and anger management in developmentally and age-appropriate ways. Group decision-making, modeling, coaching, and practice are demonstrated in the Second Step lessons using interpersonal situations presented in photos or video format.
** The SERC Library offers access to the Grade 1-5 bundle as well as the Grade 7 and Grade 8 kits.**
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School students
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Perception of risk, exposure to positive substance use messages via media, positive attitudes toward substance use, misinformation regarding the effects and/or consequences of substance use
Description: First developed by Friends of Narconon Intl. and Narconon International in 1996, the Narconon Truth About Drugs Video Program started as a stand-alone prevention DVD (or VHS) for schools to use to supplement their ongoing prevention efforts. In 2002, the first edition of the kit was developed. Currently, the program is a multimedia, 8-session curriculum for middle school and high school students. The program aims to positively change youths’ attitudes and perceptions of risk in regard to drug use; in part, by correcting false data as well as incorrect impressions presented by the media and other sources. The curriculum incorporates a unique combination of prevention strategies for addressing the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and common "hard drugs." The Narconon Truth About Drugs Video Program conveys science-based information from diverse fields such as toxicology, forensic science, nutrition, marketing, and pharmacology, in simple terms, through illustrative examples and stories. The DVDs also feature vignettes of young adults sharing their personal stories of addiction and recovery to illustrate the harms associated with drug use, including the lies they told themselves and others when using and even dealing drugs. According to the program developer, the Truth About Drugs Video Program has been implemented in 1,000 U.S. high schools, 23 middle schools, 8 elementary schools, and one Girls and Boys Club.
Population: Students ages 8 - 11 (Grades 3 and 4)
Setting: School or Classroom
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, negative self-image
Description: The unique YOU program (formerly called I’m Special) is designed to build self-esteem in third- and fourth-grade students, ages 8 to 11. The program’s primary goal is to develop and nurture a child’s uniqueness and self-worth. The program teaches communication and decision-making skills, how to positively express feelings, and the value of healthy choices, including resisting substance use. Eight sessions are delivered weekly for 45 to 60 minutes. The session’s learning goals are introduced by the facilitator and are followed by grade-level appropriate, hands-on, interactive activities. Each session’s activities are linked to the Common Core state standards initiative. The session topics focus on concepts that include 1) classroom behaviors and friendships; 2) discovering strengths and special talents; 3) accepting and expressing feelings; 4) communicating positively; 5) decision making; 6) cooperation and teamwork; 7) healthy habits such as resisting alcohol, tobacco, and drugs through a clear “no use” message; and 8) applying these skills in other areas of life.
Population: Children ages 3-6
Risk Factors Addressed: Making unhealthy choices
Description: Healthy Alternatives for Little Ones (HALO) is a 12-unit holistic health and substance abuse prevention curriculum for children ages 3-6 in child care settings. HALO is designed to address risk and protective factors for substance abuse and other health behaviors by providing children with information on healthy choices. The program aims to help children understand the complexities of "health" and "healthy choices" by putting these abstract concepts into concrete terms they can understand. In HALO, health is defined as "growing bigger, stronger, and better able to think." The curriculum encourages healthy eating, exercise, and emotion recognition and educates children about the harmful effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) on the body. HALO provides learning opportunities for children through teacher-led, developmentally appropriate, and fun hands-on activities that involve educational songs, videos, group activities, and books. Parental involvement is facilitated through introductory and unit-specific letters that encourage at-home discussion and the practice of identifying and making healthy choices.
Population: Elementary, Middle, and High School students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, low skill efficacy
Description: LifeSkills Training (LST) is a school-based program that aims to prevent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and violence by targeting the major social and psychological factors that promote the initiation of substance use and other risky behaviors. Consistent with this theoretical framework, LST addresses multiple risk and protective factors and teaches personal and social skills that build resilience and help youth navigate developmental tasks, including the skills necessary to understand and resist prodrug influences. LST is designed to provide information relevant to the important life transitions that adolescents and young teens face, using culturally sensitive and developmentally and age-appropriate language and content. Facilitated discussion, structured small group activities, and role-playing scenarios are used to stimulate participation and promote the acquisition of skills.
Population: Students grades K - 5 (with a separate program for teens)
Risk Factors Addressed: Aggression, violence
Description: PeaceBuilders is a schoolwide violence prevention program for elementary schools (grades K-5) with a corresponding teen-centered PeacePack program. PeaceBuilders attempts to create a positive school climate by developing positive relationships between students and school staff; directly teaching nonviolent attitudes, values, and beliefs; and providing incentives for young people to display these behaviors at school, in the community, and at home. PeaceBuilders introduces a common language to a school centered on six principles: praise people; avoid put-downs; seek wise people as advisers and friends; notice and correct hurts we cause; right wrongs; and help others. Activities and rewards designed to teach and encourage these "peace-building" behaviors are woven into the school's everyday routine with the participation of all staff in the school, including teachers, classroom aides, administrators, librarians, nurses, playground monitors, and any others who regularly interact with students. Targeted outcomes include improved social competence, more frequent positive and prosocial behavior, and reduced aggression.
Setting: Home, School, or other Community settings
Risk Factors Addressed: Negative self-image, negative health habits
Description: SPORT Prevention Plus Wellness, a motivational intervention designed for use by all adolescents, integrates substance abuse prevention with health promotion to help adolescents minimize and avoid substance use while increasing physical activity and other health-enhancing habits, including eating well and getting adequate sleep. The intervention promotes the benefits of an active lifestyle with positive images of youth as active and fit, and emphasizes that substance use is counterproductive in achieving positive image and behavior goals. Adolescents participating in SPORT complete a short, self-administered health behavior screen measuring physical activity and sport behaviors and norms, healthy nutrition, sleep, and alcohol use. During a one-on-one session with a fitness specialist--a teacher, coach, or other professional (e.g., fitness trainer, nurse)--participants receive a booklet and a personally tailored consultation that follows a written script. Participants complete a simple fitness prescription goal plan intended to encourage positive behavior and image change. In addition, flyers addressing key content of the intervention are provided to parents/caregivers for 4 consecutive weeks after the intervention.
**The SERC Library offers the elementary, middle, and high school versions of this material.**
Population: Kindergarten through 12th-grade students
Risk Factors Addressed: Peer pressure, low perception of harm regarding substance use, ineffective communication skills, violent/aggressive behavior
Description: Too Good for Drugs (TGFD) is a school-based prevention program for kindergarten through 12th grade that builds on students' resiliency by teaching them how to be socially competent and autonomous problem solvers. The program is designed to benefit everyone in the school by providing needed education in social and emotional competencies and by reducing risk factors and building protective factors that affect students in these age groups. TGFD focuses on developing personal and interpersonal skills to resist peer pressures, goal setting, decision-making, bonding with others, having respect for self and others, managing emotions, effective communication, and social interactions. The program also provides information about the negative consequences of drug use and the benefits of a nonviolent, drug-free lifestyle. TGFD has developmentally appropriate curricula for each grade level through 8th grade, with a separate high school curriculum for students in grades 9 through 12. The K-8 curricula each include 10 weekly, 30- to 60-minute lessons, and the high school curriculum includes 14 weekly, 1-hour lessons plus 12 optional, 1-hour "infusion" lessons designed to incorporate and reinforce skills taught in the core curriculum through academic infusion in subject areas such as English, social studies, and science/health.
*The SERC Library offers access to the Grade 3 - High School kits.**